Showing posts with the label History

Five MOST Important and Informative Inscriptions for Reconstruction of Ancient Indian History - Hindi

भारतीय इतिहास के पुनर्निर्माण में सहायक पॉँच महत्वपूर्ण अभिलेख प्रस्तावना इतिहास लेखन का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण एवं विश्वसनीय स्रोत उत्कीर्ण अभिलेख हैं | उत्कीर्ण अभिलेखों के अध्ययन को अभिलेख-शास्त्र या एपीग्राफी कहा जाता है | अभिलेख मुहरों, पत्थर के स्तंभों, स्तूपों, चट्टानों तथा ताम्रपत्रों पर मिलते हैं | इसके साथ-साथ मंदिर की दीवारों, ईटों तथा मूर्तियों आदि पर भी अभिलेखों की प्राप्ति होती है | प्राचीन भारतीय इतिहास लेखन के लिए हमें अनेक प्रकार की सामग्रियां जुटाने पढ़ती है जिनमें से प्रायः मूक सामग्रियां की अत्याधिक हैं जिनकी मूक भाषा में ही मुखर कहानियां सुननी पड़ती है | साथ ही वह भी इतनी उलझी गुत्थी है कि उसको इतिहास की कसौटी पर रखकर सुलझाना भी बहुत सरल कार्य नहीं है | फिर भी हमारे पास इतने साधन है कि उनको जोड़ कर हमारा सारा का सारा प्राचीन इतिहास बड़ी सरलता एवं वैज्ञानिकता के साथ तैयार किया जा सकता है इसके मूल स्रोतों में एक पठनीय तथा प्रमाणिक स्रोत है अभिलेख, जो भारत भूमि में बिखरे पड़े हैं | आवश्यकता है इनको पढ़ने तथा समझने की इनके द्वारा हमारा अत

Metallurgical Marvel of Ancient India - Ashokan Pillars, Iron Pillar at Qutub Complex - How they were made?

Ashokan Pillars - Prominent Features and Symbolic Meaning The Ashokan Pillar stands out as another noteworthy example of ancient Indian' Art and Architecture. It is noted as much for its original and appropriate design as for its successful execution. The Pillar was designed as a monolithic shaft with a foundation of 12 feet, tapering up to an average height of 50 feet, crowned by a capital to serve as a religious symbol. For Ashokan Art was at the service of his religious mission and not an appeal to the senses. The religious significance of the Pillar informs all its parts. At the foundation is found the figure of a peacock (mayura) as the symbol of the Maurya Dynasty. The trunk of the Pillar was made to convey through the centuries in a permanent form the royal religious message of Morality inscribed on it in indelible characters. Every inch of the Pillar and its valuable space is utilized for the highest purpose of mass

Architectural Achievements of India during Mauryan Period - Ancient City of Patliputra and Sudarsana Lake Reservoir

We have already described the remarkable degree of success achieved by India in the early centuries of the Christian era in the production of fine silks and muslins for which there was a great rage in Rome. These exports helped to create a favorable balance of trade by the drain of gold out of Rome into India to pay for her imports, as described by Mommsen. We may now refer to some of the outstanding examples of industrial achievement in the course of India's history. Industrial Activities in Mauryan Period - Reservoir at Sudarsana Lake Mauryan history of the third and second century B.C. in the times of Chandragupta and Asoka is marked by several monumental works. It gave to India its first dam and reservoir, aptly called Beautiful or Sudarsana in a later inscription of King Rudradaman I of 150 A.D. It describes how a Tataka or lake was created by damming up the flow of rivers such as "Suvarnasikata, Pa

Industrial Development and Achievements of Ancient India - Indus Sarasvati / Indus Valley Civilization

Early Indian economy was naturally a village economy which persists predominantly to this day. The reason is that India still continues as an agricultural country comprising about 5 lakhs of villages as against only a few towns, numbering only about forty of 1 lakh population or over each. It is thus a rural and not an urban civilization. About 80% of its population still live on land with an average holding of about 13 acres of land per head and 3 acres for a family of five. These agricultural millions have to find their support by cultivation of land only for about half the year. The other half is the off-season of agriculture, during which they must find other means of livelihood, mostly by handicrafts, and partially by transport and small trade. Thus the old Indian rural economy had to base itself upon a balanced development of agriculture and industry. It was, however, able to render a good account of industrial pro

Foreign Trade in Ancient India with Roman Empire - Prominent Centres & Ports for Trade and Commerce

Trade Network of India with Roman Empire This early Indian trade which began like a trickle grew into a substantial volume by the first three centuries of the Christian era during which was developed a profitable seaborne trade between India and the West represented mainly by the Roman empire which became her best customer. This Roman trade is testified to both by literary texts and the more concrete and convincing evidence of abundant finds of Roman coins as the tangible results of that trade at several places in the South, specially at Coimbatore and Madurai,as the chief centres of this export trade. It was Southern India which had the monopoly of the products which were in great demand in the West. There was a demand in the West for its botanical products like Pepper, Betel, Spices, and Scents; for the precious stones of her mines like Beryl, Gem, Diamond, Ruby and Amethyst; the pearls of her seas; the ivory from the t

Foreign Trade in Ancient India with Egypt and Babylon (Ancient Mesopotamia)

There is some evidence to show that India from very early times carried on trade by sea with several foreign countries . According to Dr. Sayce, the Assyriologist, Indian teak has been found among the ruins of Ur about 3000 B.C.while Sindhu or Indian muslin is mentioned in an old Babylonian list of clothes. This Sindhu or muslin, as pointed out by Hewitt, was brought to Babylon by sea and not by land by Zend-speaking traders who would have called it by the Zend term Hindu. A beam of Indian cedar has been found in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 B.C.) and also Indian teak at a temple of Ur. Trade between Ancient India and Babylon The old Baveru-Jataka (c. Sixth Century B.C.) tells of import by sea to Babylon of the Indian peacock. As Buhler states: "This trade very probably existed in much earlier times, as the Jatakas tell of other voyages and mention old ports like Surparaka (Sopara) and Bhriguka

Indian Expansion and Spread of Buddhism during Mauryan Period & King Ashoka's Dhamma Vijay

Expansion during Chandragupta Maurya India achieved a remarkable expansion under the Maurya king, Chandragupta , who repelled the Greek invasion of Seleukos in c. 304 B.C. and annexed to his Indian empire the eastern part of the Syrian empire comprising the provinces of Gedrosia, Arachosia (Kandahar), Aria (Herat), and Paropamsidae (Hindukush) , so that he came to rule over a Greater India which extended up to the borders of Persia. Accordingly, his grandson Ashoka calls the King of Syria Antiochus (Amtiyoka) as his immediate neighbour (Anta) in his Rock Edict II . As a result of increased interaction between India and Iran, there sprang up a large foreign settlement in the capital of India at Pataliputra, of which the Municipality had to constitute a special committee to take charge of its interests, as reported by the Greek Ambassador Megașthenes, deputed to the Mauryan Court. This Indian interaction with Pe

Boghazkoi inscription and Achaemenian empire of Persia - Indian Expansion and Connect with Outside World

Reference of Vedic Gods in Boghazkoi, Asia Minor Indian civilization was not always contained within its natural, geographical limits. It tended to spread and extend beyond them. An early example of this extension has been indicated in certain inscriptions discovered at an old site called Boghazkoi in Mesopotamia by the German archaeologist Hugo Winckler in 1907 , and dated to about 1400 B.C. They record treaties between the kings of the Mitani and the Hittites . These were guaranteed by their gods called Mi-it-ra, U-ru-w-na, In-da-ra and Na-sa-at-ti-ia, corresponding to the Rigvedic Deities known as Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatyas (the twin Asvins). Thus it has been assumed that Rigvedic Civilization was an established fact in India before 1400 B.C. so as to promote colonial, cultural and commercial activities up to a distant country like Mesopotamia. Linguistic Reference of Indian Expansion There a

Glimpse of Vedic Era - Social Life and Reference of Varna System - Ancient History Series

Vedic society was broadly based upon a four-fold division of labor among the different interests of national life: its learning and culture its government, security and defense its economic life centering round agriculture and dairying its handicrafts These four classes of people are described in the famous Purusha-Sukta of the Rigveda as the four limbs of the body-politic, as integral parts of society as an organic whole. They are named Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras, representing respectively the mouth, arms, thighs and feet of the Creator or Virat Purusha . These classes later hardened into castes under the influence of heredity. Varna System as described in Upanishads The Upanishads know of both Brahmanas and Kshatriyas as Rishis and teachers, though normally the Brahmanas were the custodians of learning as teachers. Among the learned Kshatriyas or Rajarshis

Glimpse of Vedic Era - Democratic ideas, Sabha & Samiti - Ancient History Series

The root of democratic thinking can be found in Rigveda. It has made of Democracy a Deity aptly named Samajnana or Samjnana, the collective consciousness of the people, the National Mind, to which the individual mind must pay its homage. The Samajnana Sukta (RV. X, 191) calls upon the citizens to come together to their Assembly (Samgachchhaddhvam) and speak there with one voice (samvadaddhvam), cultivating a union of minds (sammanah), of hearts (sahachittam), of policies (samanamantrah), and of hopes and aspirations (akuti), and functioning in a common Assembly based on equality as an integral unity and not divided into groups and parties (samitih samani). Lastly, there is a call for equal sacrifice in the pursuit of a common national policy (Samanam mantrah abhimantraye vah samanena vo havishajuhomi: "I call ye to a common purpose which ye serve with a common sacrifice"). Thus should all live in a happy harmony (susahaa

Glimpse of Vedic Era - Concept of Brahman, God & Dharma in Vedas - Ancient History Series

Vedic period is the starting phase of Indian Civilization and is recorded in the Vedas (वेद) constituting of the works known as the four Vedic Samhitas (संहिता) being Rigveda (ऋग्वेद), Samveda (सामवेद), Yajurveda (यजुर्वेद) and Atharvaveda (अथर्ववेद) together with the supplementary works known as the Brahmanas (ब्राह्मण), the work of rituals, and the philosophical works known as the Aranyakas (आरण्यक - वन में लिखा गया) and Upanishads (उपनिषद्). If we imagine Vedic Period as a Tree of Knowledge, Rigveda is the root with its many branches sprouting out of it through the ages in different schools and sects. Rigveda is the earliest book of India and of mankind. A reference from Max Muller is relevant to cite here that "There is nothing more ancient than the hymns of the Rigveda." But, thought ancient, it shows the zenith of wisdom. We see in it both the dawn and meridian of culture, as well appear from an

Temple Architecture of Orissa - Introduction, Origin and Characteristics - Hindi

उड़ीसा का मंदिर स्थापत्य - परिचय उड़ीसा का प्राचीन नाम था कलिंग था जिसका उल्लेख खारवेल के हांथी-गुफ़ा अभिलेख में मिलता है। इस राज्य का ऐतिहासिक महत्व अपने प्रकार का अनोखा है। यहां अशोक ने कलिंग युद्ध में हुये नरसंहार को देखने के पश्चात सर्वप्रथम धर्म-विजय की घोषणा की थी। इस महान क्रांतिकारी सम्राट में युद्धविरोधी नीति अपनाकर राजनीति की दिशा बदल डालने की चेष्टा की तथा धम्मविजय के मार्ग पर आगे बढ़ा। यह शांति और सहिष्णुता का अद्भुत प्रमाण है। कला के क्षेत्र में इसका महत्वपूर्ण योगदान है। उदयगिरी एवं खंडगिरि की प्राचीन शैल-गुफाएँ इसकी पुष्टि करती हैं की सदियों से कुशल शिल्पी यहां की भूमि पर नित्य नूतन श्रृंगार करते हैं। मध्य युग में यहां उत्तरभारतीय आर्य शैली के शिखर युक्त मंदिरों का निर्माण हुआ। यह मंदिर अपनी सौंदर्य, निर्माण-योजना में अनुपम हैं। इन मंदिरों की संख्या प्रभुत है। इसी कारण उड़ीसा को "मंदिरों की नगरी" कहा जाता है। वस्तुतः यहां के अधिकांश मंदिर भुवनेश्वर में स्थित हैं, अतएव "मंदिरों की नगरी" इसे

Origin and Development of Mahajanpadas (Monarchical State) in Ancient India - Hindi

प्राचीन भारत में राजतंत्र का उद्भव एवं विकास - दशराज्ञ युद्ध पूर्व-वैदिक काल - Early Vedic Period पूर्व वैदिक काल में राजनीतिक संगठन की सबसे छोटी इकाई कुल या परिवार हुआ करती थी। सबसे छोटी इकाई कुल या परिवार - मुखिया कुलम कई कुलों को मिलाकर ग्राम - मुखिया ग्रामणी कई ग्रामों को मिलाकर जन - मुखिया जनपति या राजा कुछ महत्वपूर्ण जनों के नाम - अनु, द्रुहु, यदु, पुरु और तुर्वशु। इन्हें पंचजन्य या पंचमानुस भी कहा जाता था। इस संदर्भ में ऋग्वेद में वर्णित दशराज्ञ युद्ध पूर्व वैदिक काल में जनों की जानकारी के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है जिसमें 10 जनों का उल्लेख मिलता है। वह दस जन हैं - अनु, द्रुहु, यदु, पुरु, तुर्वशु, पक्थ, अनिल, भलानस, शिव और विषानिन। ऋग्वेद संहिता के प्रारंभिक हिस्सों में राजन या राजा शब्द का कई बार प्रयोग हुआ है। निश्चित रूप से उस समय राजतन्त्रात्मक राज्य का विकास नहीं हुआ था इसीलिए इस शब्द का प्रयोग राजा के स्थान पर जन के मुखिया या फिर श्रेष्ठ व्यक्तित्व के लिए किया जाता है। राजा यद्यपि अपने कबीले