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First Outside Invasion of India by Persian Achaemenid Empire and its impact - Hindi

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तत्कालिक स्थिति - Political Scenario at the time of Persian Attack छठवीं शताब्दी से लेकर चौथी शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व तक, जिस समय मध्य भारत के राज्य मगध साम्राज्य की विस्तारवादी नीति के शिकार हो रहे थे, पश्चिम-उत्तर भारत में घोर अराजकता एवं अव्यवस्था का वातावरण व्याप्त था, भारत के विभिन्न भागों का राजनीतिक जीवन दुर्बलता थी, इस परिस्थिति में विदेशी आक्रांताओं का ध्यान भारत के इस भूभाग की ओर आकर्षित होना स्वाभाविक ही था। इसकी परिणति हमें यथाशीघ्र ही भारत पर प्रथम विदेशी आक्रमण के रूप में परिलक्षित होती दिखती है इस आक्रमण का भारतीय जनमानस संस्कृति पर का क्या प्रभाव पड़ा या अध्ययन की दृष्टि से विचारणीय प्रश्न है। हख़ामनी साम्राज्य की स्थापना एवं आक्रमण : संक्षिप्त परिचय Establishment of Achaemenid Empire and Attacks on India छठी शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व में ईरान का साम्राज्य भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप के उत्तर पश्चिम सीमा तक फैला हुआ था। छठवीं शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व के मध्य साईरस नामक एक व्यक्ति ने हखामनी साम्राज्य की स्थापना की। उसने शीघ्र ही अपने को पश्

The Concept behind Hindu Temples - a brief note

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Generally speaking, a temple is a 'Place of Worship'. It is also called the 'House of God'. However, for a Hindu it is both and yet still more. It is the whole cosmos in the miniature form. Stella Kramrisch defined temple as monument of manifestation in her The Hindu Temple. Hence, its morphology is not arbitrary. Hindu Temple as Virat Purusha From the top to bottom the Hindu temple seeks to represent everything of which the cosmic world brahmanda  (ब्रह्माण्ड), the entire universe, is composed of. The earthly world (पृथ्वी) The heavenly world (आकाश) The astral world (स्वर्ग) The world below the waters (पाताल) That is why on the walls of a Hindu temple one can see the representations of men, women, children, animals, birds, pests, insects, reptiles, trees, rivers, flowers, seas, mountains, houses, forts, places, villages, huts, etc., which constitute the earthly world. It includes even copulation amon

Status of Women in India - Early Historical Period (Indus / Vedic / Renaissance)

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Introduction The role and status of women throughout ancient and medieval period has been far from static ranging from one of authority to freedom to one of subservience. Most of the historical sources by and large refer to the elite sections of society concentrating on the court and the aristocracy and hence when they talk of women they generally refer to women of this class because women from other classes and tribal backgrounds had different norms. Tribal Women - Less discussed in Literature Tribal women and women from the labouring castes and classes are rarely visible as they represent those groups which did not have a literary culture and therefore did not leave behind much evidence. However, there are references to them in literature and historians also use archaeological evidence to try and reconstruct the lives of the pre-literate societies. Indus Saraswati Civilization It is generally accepted that one o