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Industrial Development and Achievements of Ancient India - Indus Sarasvati / Indus Valley Civilization

Early Indian economy was naturally a village economy which persists predominantly to this day. The reason is that India still continues as an agricultural country comprising about 5 lakhs of villages as against only a few towns, numbering only about forty of 1 lakh population or over each. It is thus a rural and not an urban civilization. About 80% of its population still live on land with an average holding of about 13 acres of land per head and 3 acres for a family of five. These agricultural millions have to find their support by cultivation of land only for about half the year. The other half is the off-season of agriculture, during which they must find other means of livelihood, mostly by handicrafts, and partially by transport and small trade. Thus the old Indian rural economy had to base itself upon a balanced development of agriculture and industry. It was, however, able to render a good account of industrial pro

Foreign Trade in Ancient India with Roman Empire - Prominent Centres & Ports for Trade and Commerce

Trade Network of India with Roman Empire This early Indian trade which began like a trickle grew into a substantial volume by the first three centuries of the Christian era during which was developed a profitable seaborne trade between India and the West represented mainly by the Roman empire which became her best customer. This Roman trade is testified to both by literary texts and the more concrete and convincing evidence of abundant finds of Roman coins as the tangible results of that trade at several places in the South, specially at Coimbatore and Madurai,as the chief centres of this export trade. It was Southern India which had the monopoly of the products which were in great demand in the West. There was a demand in the West for its botanical products like Pepper, Betel, Spices, and Scents; for the precious stones of her mines like Beryl, Gem, Diamond, Ruby and Amethyst; the pearls of her seas; the ivory from the t

Foreign Trade in Ancient India with Egypt and Babylon (Ancient Mesopotamia)

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There is some evidence to show that India from very early times carried on trade by sea with several foreign countries . According to Dr. Sayce, the Assyriologist, Indian teak has been found among the ruins of Ur about 3000 B.C.while Sindhu or Indian muslin is mentioned in an old Babylonian list of clothes. This Sindhu or muslin, as pointed out by Hewitt, was brought to Babylon by sea and not by land by Zend-speaking traders who would have called it by the Zend term Hindu. A beam of Indian cedar has been found in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 B.C.) and also Indian teak at a temple of Ur. Trade between Ancient India and Babylon The old Baveru-Jataka (c. Sixth Century B.C.) tells of import by sea to Babylon of the Indian peacock. As Buhler states: "This trade very probably existed in much earlier times, as the Jatakas tell of other voyages and mention old ports like Surparaka (Sopara) and Bhriguka

Indian Expansion and Spread of Buddhism during Mauryan Period & King Ashoka's Dhamma Vijay

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Expansion during Chandragupta Maurya India achieved a remarkable expansion under the Maurya king, Chandragupta , who repelled the Greek invasion of Seleukos in c. 304 B.C. and annexed to his Indian empire the eastern part of the Syrian empire comprising the provinces of Gedrosia, Arachosia (Kandahar), Aria (Herat), and Paropamsidae (Hindukush) , so that he came to rule over a Greater India which extended up to the borders of Persia. Accordingly, his grandson Ashoka calls the King of Syria Antiochus (Amtiyoka) as his immediate neighbour (Anta) in his Rock Edict II . As a result of increased interaction between India and Iran, there sprang up a large foreign settlement in the capital of India at Pataliputra, of which the Municipality had to constitute a special committee to take charge of its interests, as reported by the Greek Ambassador Megașthenes, deputed to the Mauryan Court. This Indian interaction with Pe

Boghazkoi inscription and Achaemenian empire of Persia - Indian Expansion and Connect with Outside World

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Reference of Vedic Gods in Boghazkoi, Asia Minor Indian civilization was not always contained within its natural, geographical limits. It tended to spread and extend beyond them. An early example of this extension has been indicated in certain inscriptions discovered at an old site called Boghazkoi in Mesopotamia by the German archaeologist Hugo Winckler in 1907 , and dated to about 1400 B.C. They record treaties between the kings of the Mitani and the Hittites . These were guaranteed by their gods called Mi-it-ra, U-ru-w-na, In-da-ra and Na-sa-at-ti-ia, corresponding to the Rigvedic Deities known as Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatyas (the twin Asvins). Thus it has been assumed that Rigvedic Civilization was an established fact in India before 1400 B.C. so as to promote colonial, cultural and commercial activities up to a distant country like Mesopotamia. Linguistic Reference of Indian Expansion There a

Glimpse of Vedic Era - Social Life and Reference of Varna System - Ancient History Series

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Vedic society was broadly based upon a four-fold division of labor among the different interests of national life: its learning and culture its government, security and defense its economic life centering round agriculture and dairying its handicrafts These four classes of people are described in the famous Purusha-Sukta of the Rigveda as the four limbs of the body-politic, as integral parts of society as an organic whole. They are named Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras, representing respectively the mouth, arms, thighs and feet of the Creator or Virat Purusha . These classes later hardened into castes under the influence of heredity. Varna System as described in Upanishads The Upanishads know of both Brahmanas and Kshatriyas as Rishis and teachers, though normally the Brahmanas were the custodians of learning as teachers. Among the learned Kshatriyas or Rajarshis